The department of child health and diseases, also known as pediatrics, is the science that deals with the diagnosis, follow-up and treatment of individuals involved in the process from birth to adolescence. Congenital diseases of persons defined as children between 0 and 18 years of age, vaccination follow-up that should be applied regularly after birth, mental, physical and motor development are followed by pediatricians. In the routine examinations performed in this process, many processes such as the development of the daily life skills, expressions and understandings, neurological and psychological developments, as well as the height, weight, nutrition and similar development of the babies are checked and followed. Physicians, who are interested in the difficult diagnosis and treatment of the diseases of infants who have not yet developed communication skills, conduct the examinations of individuals in childhood, taking into account their psychology. Child health and diseases physicians specialize in pediatrics for 4 years after receiving medical education for 6 years. The Department of Child Health and Diseases also has many minor branches. Pediatricians specializing in these branches undergo additional training.